Report on the Third General Elections in India 1962

Report on the Third General Elections in India 1962

For the third time within the history of freelance Bharat, general
elections were at the same time control everywhere the country for reconstituting
the House of the individuals and also the Legislative Assemblies of States
and were completed in line with set up. The mammoth citizens
consisting of 218 million adult voters was known as upon to travel to the
polls, for the foremost half throughout the amount of 10 days between the sixteenth
and twenty fifth Feb, 1962, and to decide on its representatives within the
legislatures. the very fact that it did thus during a peaceful and orderly fashion
and that the elections were dropped at a successful conclusion without
any serious hitch anywhere is sufficient testimony, not only to the
political stability of India and the efficiency of its administration, but
even more significantly, to the faith it has in parliamentary democracy
and free elections.
The new Legislative Assemblies were constituted in all States
except Jammu and Kashmir, Kerala and Orissa during the first week
•of March. Although the results of practically all the parliamentary
elections had also been declared by then, the formal constitution of the
new House of the People was held up till the 2nd April mainly to
enable the old House to meet and get through essential business. The
new Legislative Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir also came into
existence on this date.
Immediately when the completion of the general elections to the
Legislative Assemblies, the new bodies were known as upon to elect the
representatives of the States within the Council of States in situ of these
who were thanks to retire on the 2d Gregorian calendar month, 1962 on the expiration of
their term of workplace. there have been seventy four such vacancies to be stuffed, and in
all the States except Jammu and Cashmere and within the Union Territories
except urban center, the elections were persisted March twenty nine, and also the results
were declared straight off. The remaining 2 elections being uncontested ,
were additionally completed by the center of Gregorian calendar month.
The term of workplace of the President of Bharat which of the Vice-
President were thanks to expire on constant date, namely, May 13, 1962.
It was on this date 10 years past that Dr. Rajendra Prasad and
Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan when being electoral below the provisions
of the Constitution, assumed their various high offices and continuing
therein for a second term of 5 years on re-election in could, 1957.
A common programme for the Presidential and executive elections,
with could seven because the date of poll, was notified by the Election
Commission on Gregorian calendar month six, 1962. each elections were oppose. On
May 11, Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan was electoral President of Bharat
and on could seven, Dr. Zakir Hussain was electoral Vice-President.
At concerning constant time a* these 2 elections and also the biennial
elections to the Council of States, the.series of elections to the State
Legislative Councils had to be started within the eight States having
bicameral legislatures. tierce of the members of those Councils
were owing to complete their six-year term of workplace on totally different dates in
the months of Apr, could and Gregorian calendar month. The earliest was Madras on Apr
20 and also the latest state on Gregorian calendar month thirty. The conduct of those
elections consequently engaged the eye of the committee
during all the 3 months. there have been altogether 254 vacancies to be
filled and 109 elections to be control, and with few exceptions, they were

completed in blast before the vacancies really arose
The second general elections were command early in 1957 terribly
soon once the large-scale shakeup of States had been completed
and given result to on the first Nov, 1956. like a shot
before that date, there existed twenty four States with legislatures,
three while not legislatures and also the Andaman and Nicobar Islands,
which were during a separate class. once shakeup, the political
map of Republic of India was greatly simplified. the quantity of States with
independent legislatures was reduced to fourteen. Four of the previous half
C States and also the 2 teams of Islands, one to the east and also the alternative
to the west, were created into Union Territories while not legislatures of
their own. The second election to the House of the folks
covered all the States except Jammu and Jammu and {kashmir|geographical area|geographic area|geographical region|geographic region} and also the half B
Tribal areas of state, and every one the Union Territories except the
Andaman and Nicobar Islands and also the Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi
islands; and at the same time, general elections* were command to
reconstitute the Legislative Assemblies of all the States except Jammu
and Kashmir.
During the interval of 5 years that followed, a major amendment
in the framework of the Indian Union was the bifurcation of the State
of Bombay. The formation of this massive bilingual State in 1956 by
adding to the previous half A State of city the entire of Saurashtra and
Kutch on one facet and also the Marathi-speaking areas of Madhya Pradesh
and Hyderabad on the opposite, was a matter of acute argument right
from the start and its bitter impact was felt at the time of the
general elections within the State. The variations didn't die down even
after the elections and eventually diode to a choice to divide the State
into two, geographic region and Gujarat. The city shakeup Act
was gone along Parliament in Gregorian calendar month, 1960 and also the 2 new States came
into existence on the primary of could.
The city State as set up by the States shakeup Act
had a illustration of sixty six members within the House of the folks and
27 members within the Council of States. It had a bicameral legislative assembly
with a general assembly of 396 members and a general assembly
of seventy two members. The bifurcation settled by the city shakeup
Act, 1960 divided the population between geographic region and Gujarat

very nearly within the proportion of 2 to at least one. consequently, the repre-sentation of geographic region and Gujarat within the House of the folks was
fixed by the Act at forty four and twenty two severally, and also the then existing
Legislative Assembly was dichotomised conjointly within the magnitude relation of 2 to
one, 264 members forming the legislature of geographic region
and the remaining 132 forming the legislature of Gujarat.
Only a number of of the parliamentary and assembly constituencies situated
near the new inter-State boundary were affected in their extent by the
division.
The Bombay organization Act provided the State of geographic region
with a general assembly, however not the State of Gujarat. The total
strength of the general assembly of geographic region was fastened at seventy eight.
All sitting members of the Bombay general assembly World Health Organization had been
elected by territorial constituencies within the territory of geographic region or
were otherwise connected therewith State mechanically became members
of the geographic region general assembly thereby securing a precise
amount of continuity within the membership of that House. The vacancies
caused by the statutory elimination of the Gujarati section of the
Bombay general assembly and also the further seats were stuffed by
elections control in could 1960.
Since the new State of Gujarat wasn't to possess AN higher House, it
was provided in section nineteen of the Bombay organization Act that the
strength of its legislature would stand increased from the
initial 132 to 154 as from the date on that the period of that
Assembly expired  by flow of your time or, if it happened to be dissolved
earlier, as from the date of such dissolution.
Another vital constitutional amendment that affected the
strength of a legislature and conjointly that of the House of the
People was created by Kamarupan Hills—Tuensang space Act, 1957. The
Sixth Schedule to the Constitution containing special provisions on
the administration of the social group areas in Assam place them in 2
groups. Six of the social group areas were enclosed partially A of the Table
in this Schedule and one in all these was the Kamarupan Hills District. The
North East Frontier Tract and also the Kamarupan social group space were enclosed
in Part B of the Table. whereas the half A social group areas referred to as 'autonomous
districts' were administered by the government of Assam
and pictured within the legislature of the State in abundant the
same means as the other space, the half B social group areas were administered
directly by the Governor of Assam World Health Organization during this respect acted in his
discretion because the agent of the President. The half B social group areas were
also not enclosed in any assembly or parliamentary body. As
a results of the unrest and disturbance during this region, the Kamarupan Hills—
Tuensang space Act, 1957 was gone by Parliament and brought into
force on the first Dec, 1957. The Kamarupan Hills District with that
ceased to be a vicinity A autonomous district in Assam. it absolutely was combined
with the contiguous Kamarupan social group space to make one administrative body
known as the Kamarupan Hills Tuensang space and have become a vicinity B
tribal space for constitutional functions. The Act abolished all the three
assembly constituencies into that this district was at one time divided
and consequently the full range of seats within the State Legislative
Assembly was reduced from 108 to a hundred and five. It additionally ceased to make half
•of the Autonomous Districts parliamentary body. Special
representation was but provided for the new half B social group space by
an modification of the primary Schedule to the illustration of the
People Act, 1950. in situ of 1 seat that was at one time assigned to
the North East Frontier Tract and therefore the Naga social group space within the House
of the folks, 2 seats were assigned one to the North East Frontier
Tract and therefore the different to the Naga Hills—Tuensang space, and each these
seats were stuffed by nomination of the President.
A long-standing boundary dispute between the States of Andhra
Pradesh and Madras was settled in 1959 on the idea of a bequest
given by Shri H. V. Pataskar, Governor of Madhya Pradesh, who had
been requested by the Chief Ministers of the 2 States to mediate
in sinking the boundaries. As a results of this award 319 villages from
three completely different talukas of Chittoor district and alittle forest space were
transferred from state to Madras; and reciprocally 148 villages
of Chingleput district and 3 villages of Salem district, together
with sure forest areas and tanks, were transferred from Madras to
Andhra Pradesh. The exchange of territories and therefore the readjustment of
the inter-State boundary were littered with the state and
Madras (Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1959, enacted by Parliament
tinder the provisions of article three of the Constitution. This Act came
into force on the first Apr, 1960.
The boundaries of Chittoor parliamentary body in Andhra
Pradesh and therefore the boundaries of Chingleput and Tiruvallur parliamentary
constituencies in Madras were altered to a substantial extent by this
exchange of territories. because the larger components of Tiruttani and Ramakrishnarajupet
assembly constituencies in state were
transferred to Madras in exchange for a smaller space, that was planted
into one taluk by the name of Sathyavedu, these 2 constituencies
(one two-member and therefore the different single-member) were replaced
by a two-member assembly body of Sathyavedu. Consequently,
the total range of seats within the assembly of state
was reduced from 301 to three hundred. Correspondingly, the Madras Legislative
Assembly gained one seat, the full increasing from 205 to 206.
A new assembly body referred to as Tiruttani came into being in
Madras and therefore the extent and limits of Pooneri, Gummidipundi and
Tiruvallur assembly constituencies were significantly altered.
At regarding constant time there was another transfer of territory from
one State to a different, however this was on a awfully abundant smaller scale, involving
less than 5 sq. miles of land and no population in the slightest degree. A total
area of 3085 acres lying in 3 completely different villages of Chittorgarh
district of Rajasthan was transferred to Madhya Pradesh within the
interests of the Gandhisagar dam project on the watercourse Chambal. This

transfer settled by the Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh (Transfer of Territories) Act, 1959 created no considerable distinction to any parliamentary
or assembly body of either State.
The accession of the previous Portuguese territories of Dadra and
Nagar Haveli to the Union of Asian nation on the eleventh August, 1961 and therefore the
absorption of Goa, Daman and Diu on the twentieth Gregorian calendar month, 1961 were
respectively provided for within the Tenth and Twelfth Amendments of
the Constitution. every of those areas was created a Union Territory and
given illustration within the House of the folks provisionally by nomination
of the President.
Thus, the changes within the political map of Asian nation that materialized
during the 5 years from 1957 to 1961 failed to build any nice
difference to the quantity and extent of parliamentary and assembly
constituencies. They definitely failed to produce any such serious
administrative issues on the eve of the third general elections as
the sweeping changes caused by the organisation of the States
in 1956 had done instantly before the second general elections. It
was, however, the choice to get rid of all two-member constituencies
for the House of the folks additionally because the State Legislative Assemblies
and to possess every of them divided into 2 single-member constituencies
that altered the form of an oversized variety of constituencies and additionally the
pattern of elections for filling the reserved seats within the legislatures.
It will be recalled that special provision was created in article 330 of
the Constitution for the reservation of seats within the House of the folks
for the regular castes and therefore the regular tribes and in article 332 for
similar reservation of seats within the legislature of every State.
While these 2 articles ordered down the idea for hard the quantity
of seats to be reserved in every House, the strategy of election for filling
the reserved seats and therefore the formation of constituencies for that purpose
were left to be determined by Act of Parliament. it absolutely was additional ordered
down in article 334 that the special provisions contained in articles 330
and 332 would stop to possess impact on the expiration of a amount of
ten years from the commencement of the Constitution, that is, on the
26th Gregorian calendar month, 1960. within the preceding year, however, it absolutely was determined
that these special provisions ought to be continuing and maintained for
ten years a lot of. consequently, article 334 was amended by the Constitution
(Eighth Amendment) Act, 1959 extending the amount mentioned
therein to twenty years. This constitutional modification when
ratification by the requisite variety of State legislatures came into force
on the sixth Gregorian calendar month, 1960.
The border Commission Act, 1952, given that all parliamentary
and assembly constituencies ought to be either single-member
or twormember constituencies, that where practicable seats ought to
be reserved for the regular castes or regular tribes in singlemember
constituencies which in each two-member body one
seat ought to be reserved either for the regular castes or for the
icheduled tribes and therefore the different seat ought to be a general seat
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